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For those who successfully navigated these dangers, there usually followed an uneventful though arduous trip up the Ohio and the Cumberland to the basin.

10 Interesting Facts About The Appalachian Mountains

En route they would pass the mouth of the Red River, another navigable stream and the future site of Clarksville. Whatever route one took, the Central Basin — or simply "the Cumberland" — became a magnet even before East Tennessee was well into its frontier phase. West Tennessee is bounded by the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers, and most of it is part of the much larger Gulf Coastal Plain.

Its easternmost component is a narrow zone of hilly, broken upland bordering the Tennessee. From there the terrain gradually slopes downward to a series of bluffs above the Mississippi Bottoms, which are part of the Mississippi River Flood Plain. Those promontories include the Chickasaw Bluffs, which touch the Mississippi at four points from Memphis northward and are famous landmarks for river travelers. All offered access eastward a short distance into the interior, but they sometimes overflowed, and much of the surrounding terrain was swampy and marshy.

The bottomland, though often unhealthy, was home to one of the most interesting and advanced prehistoric Native American communities in the state. White explorers, however, were more impressed with the geopolitical significance of the Chickasaw Bluffs, and they periodically built fortifications there. Later, speculators and settlers would extol West Tennessee's agricultural and commercial potential.

The cession of the last Indian claims in opened the door to a new settlement frontier and the eventual emergence of Memphis as the state's largest city. By West Tennessee's cotton production was integrating the region into the national and world economies. Clearly Tennessee's physiography, flora, and fauna helped to shape the frontier experiences of its people.

Coping with the demands of nature, seeking reconciliation with the landscape or a tenuous hegemony over it, was a major feature of a series of frontiers stretching far back in time. Each culminated in or blended with a sometimes lengthy period of stable habitation and significant attainments before giving way to a new frontier produced by exploration, trade, migration, and the mingling of different peoples and cultures. These historical processes, which we normally associate with Eurocentric frontiers, occurred also during the thousands of years of pre-Columbian habitation in the Americas.

Migration legends and other oral traditions suggest that ancestors of the Cherokees, Chickasaws, and Shawnees had participated in epic frontier adventures similar to those of Euro-Americans — whose ancestors had opened new frontiers in Europe.

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And these Indian frontiers continued to evolve simultaneously with, and partly in response to, those of Euro-Americans. Native American adaptability and creativity amid changing circumstances is one of the great underappreciated themes of frontier history. Tennessee's first frontiersmen were the small bands of anonymous hunters who ventured into the region some twelve to thirteen thousand years ago. These nomads, called Paleo-Indians by archaeologists, were descendants of people who had appeared in North America during the last Ice Age, a time when gigantic glaciers formed, sea levels dropped, and a wide land bridge emerged linking Siberia and Alaska.

Recent genetic and linguistic analyses point to three or more major movements from the Old World to New during that time. We know that the first and most important of these migrations occurred at least twelve to fifteen thousand years ago, and some scholars argue for much earlier arrivals some thirty to forty thousand years ago. Anthropologists categorize the Paleo-Indian period as the first of four lengthy eras of human habitation in the Southeast prior to white contact; the others are the Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian periods.

Paleo-Indian artifacts, including the distinctive projectile points of the Clovis culture, are found in all parts of Tennessee. The otherwise scanty evidence suggests that small bands of nomadic hunters operated out of temporary base camps on river terraces and upland knolls or in caves and rock shelters. In many parts of the United States Paleo-Indians hunted large game animals like mammoths and mastodons, but no prehistoric habitation sites in Tennessee are indisputably associated with mega-faunal kills, though further research at the Coats-Hines Mastodon Site in Williamson County may produce such a link.

We should probably assume that early Tennessee hunters, like other Paleo-Indians, pursued large game animals when they encountered them but concentrated on hunting smaller mammals and foraging for wild plant foods.

A History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier - Indiana University Press

If this is so, their subsistence patterns differed from those of their Early Archaic successors only in degree rather than in kind. By the advent of the Archaic period about ten thousand years ago Tennessee's climate, flora, and fauna were nearly identical to those encountered by the first Europeans in the mid-sixteenth century.

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Gone were the mega-fauna, and extensive deciduous forests were common everywhere. During the next seven thousand years or so the hunter-gatherer economy shifted from small seasonal base camps to denser populations in semi-permanent camps or villages on favored riverine sites. Indians hunted game like deer, bear, and turkey, and the atlatl, or throwing stick, enabled them to propel their spears with great force. Dramatic dietary changes came with widescale gathering of nuts and wild fruits as well as consumption of fish, freshwater mussels, snails, and turtles.

At the Eva site near the Tennessee River in Benton County, large midden heaps offer conclusive proof of the variety of foods available to the many generations of settlers between about eight and three thousand years ago. The site also reveals many of the increasingly complex cultural patterns of Archaic peoples: impressive stone technology, lithic workshop areas, and ceremonial burials of bodies arranged in flexed positions. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?

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tennessee frontiers three regions in transition a history of the trans appalachian frontier Manual

All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. Tennessee Frontiers : Three Regions in Transition. A History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier. This important new history chronicles the formation of Tennessee from indigenous settlers to the end of the end of the frontier in , signalled by the removal of the Cherokee along the 'trail of tears'.

It begins with a brief discussion of a series of prehistoric frontiers involving millennia-long processes of adaptation by Native Americans. The rest of the book deals with Tennessee's historic period beginning with the incursion of Hernando de Soto's Spanish army in Finger relies on a two-part definition of 'frontier': first, as that time in Tennessee from the early interaction of Native Americans and Euro-Americans and ending when the latter gained effective hegemony; and second, that period of Euro-American development lasting until the emergence of a market economy.

Thus, the late s when the Cherokees made their last land cession and the tribal majority moved westward was the final, decisive acquisition of land by white and demonstrated effective hegemony. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats.